Osteoid osteoma is a bone cancer that arises from the osteoblasts and some components of osteoclasts. Originally, it is a benign bone cancer and can originate in any part of the body. However, it usually occurs in the long bones i.e., thigh bones, bones of the hand, and sometimes in the bones of the spine. Its primary victims are children and young adults. It is almost absent in people over the age of 50. Usually, males are 2-3 times more likely to become its victim as compared to women. In this article, we are going to discuss symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment of Osteoid Osteoma.
Osteoid Osteoma Symptoms:
The most common symptoms of Osteoid Osteoma include:
- Severe pain in legs.
- Muscle atrophy.
- Bowling deformity.
- Increased or decreased bone growth.
Of all the symptoms, severe pain is the most common one. Initially, it is relievable by the use of medications. However, after the formation of the benign tumor, medications do not work any longer. In some cases, the pain level remains constant throughout the year. This pain is most frequent at night, and often the patient wakes up with pain.
Osteoid Osteoma Causes:
The causes of Osteoid Osteoma are still unknown. However, researchers say that it is due to the uncontrollable cell division in the bone that forms abnormal bone tissue. This abnormal tissue then replaces the healthy tissue of bone, which leads to the formation of this bone cancer.
Osteoid Osteoma Diagnosis:
The doctor will generally conduct a physical examination and some tests like MRI and CT SCAN for the diagnosis of Osteoid Osteoma.
An x-ray gives a clear image of the dense structures like bone and can diagnose this bone cancer. The x-ray of the painful area reveals thickened bone surroundings and a small central core of low density – which is a distinctive feature of a tumor.
COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY (CT SCAN):
This scan provides a three-dimensional image of the bone and proves to be a good diagnostic tool. It commonly shows the center of the bone.
A biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. In a biopsy, tissues from the tumor cell are taken for microscopic examination. There may not be any need to perform a biopsy if the imaging studies are highly suggestive of the presence of this bone cancer.
Osteoid Osteoma Treatment:
Basically, both surgical and non-surgical treatments are available to cure Osteoid Osteoma. Let’s have a look at both treatment options in detail!
As the name suggests, in non-surgical treatment, a tumor disappears on its own with the help of certain medicines. Moreover, the doctors may prescribe certain Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen to relieve pain.
In surgical treatment, your doctor scrapes out the entire tumor, specifically the nidus or central core. The doctor makes sure that he removes the entire tumor is so that it doesn’t grow back.
In this treatment, surgeons destroy the tumor by high- frequency electric current. Both Interventional Radiologists and Orthopedic Surgeons perform Radiofrequency Ablation.
This benign bone tumor usually occurs in the legs and can also be present in hands, fingers, or neck. Like many of the other bone cancers, the major causes of Osteoid Osteoma include the uncontrolled cell division that forms a hard abnormal bone tissue. These tumors may bring discomfort, but they do not spread in the body. The most common symptoms of Osteoid Osteoma include pain in legs at night time, liming, and swelling. The treatment of Osteoid Osteoma is a bit expensive but effective at the same time. A patient may live as long as five years after getting proper treatment.